講座主題

現象學與文化
交互理解的實踐

主講人

劉國英

香港中文大學
哲學系

講座簡介

本演講系列將從現象學角度探討跨文化哲學。現象學之父胡塞爾從未對任何東方哲學文獻作內部討論,甚至認為印度哲學和中國哲學都並非真正意義下的哲學,這意味著他持守一個歐洲中心論的哲學觀。然而,胡塞爾的具體現象學研究,在在展示了一種開放的探討態度和嚴謹的研究方法,鼓舞了德國內外幾代的追隨者,把現象學發展成一個跨語言、跨文化,和跨學科的學術運動。本系列演講採取雙向閱讀和思考的進路,一方面運用現象學運動的理論資源,重新理解中國道家哲學、儒家哲學,以及印度佛家哲學的一些基本概念、學說和方法論議題;另一方面則透過當代中國哲學中的一些重要的概念創新(勞思光的「引導性哲學」和「自我轉化」概念),來釐清西方哲學一種發展新趨向。這一雙向的閱讀和思考,體現了文化交互理解的哲學實踐,藉此培育一種新的文化肌膚,從而具體地勾畫出一條建立跨文化現象學的道路。

This series of lectures is an exploration into intercultural philosophy from the phenomenological perspective. The father of phenomenology Edmund Husserl has never devoted any internal discussion on Eastern philosophy. He has even once declared that both Indian Philosophy and Chinese Philosophy are not philosophy in the genuine sense of the term, betraying his Eurocentric conception of philosophy. Yet the concrete phenomenological investigations carried out by Husserl demonstrate an open attitude and a rigorous research method. These have inspired generations of followers within and without Germany, and contributed to the development of phenomenology into a pluri-linguistic, cross-cultural, and interdisciplinary intellectual movement. This series will attempt, on the one hand, at a new understanding of the concepts, doctrines and methodological issues of Chinese Daoism, Confucianism and Indian Buddhism by employing theoretical resources provided by the phenomenological movement. On the other hand, by means of some theoretical innovations of contemporary Chinese philosophy (Lao Sze-Kwang’s ideas of orientative philosophy and self-transformation, we will try to elucidate some new trends of development of contemporary Western Philosophy. This two-way reading and thinking incarnates the concrete practice of intercultural understanding in philosophy. It also paves the way toward an intercultural phenomenology through the cultivation of a new cultural flesh.

場次摘要 Abstract

近數十年來,西方學術界對中國道家哲學的評價,出現了一種頗為兩極化的傾向。一些西方學者視道家哲學為反理性論(anti-rationalism),另一些西方哲學家則視道家哲學為「海德格思想的隱秘來源」之一。在批判地檢討了這一種對道家哲學的兩極化理解傾向後,本講嘗試運用現象學運動提供的一些概念和學說,重讀老子的《道德經》,並從當代哲學的視野出發,提出一些可能的新理解,特別是就「道」的三個面向作出說明:一)存在論層面而言,「道」作為始動的自然;二)「道」的開展:晚期梅洛龐蒂意義下的「超辯證」運動與復歸;三)「道」的性格:虛靜與柔弱。在這基礎上,本文希望指出《道德經》的非人本論性格和道家哲學的批判性潛能,以及它作為文化更新的可能理論資源。

時間:22/5/2019,星期三
地點:政大資訊大樓1樓會議室

本講旨在重構胡塞爾與佛教的相遇,一方面藉此從現象學視角理解佛學的哲學意涵,並探討胡塞爾這一跨文化經驗對他往後思想發展的影響。胡塞爾於1925年就一些南傳佛教經典的德文譯本寫了一篇簡短的書評,展現了他初遇佛經時的驚喜與熱忱,是他其他著作中罕見的。胡塞爾讚揚佛教持守的出世態度為一種超克俗世生活旨趣的態度,足以媲美他自己揭櫫的超越論現象學態度,因此對佛經投寄了一種希望,視之為文化更新的至高的道德的和宗教的資源。在其後的一篇手稿<蘇格拉底與佛陀>中,胡塞爾再表達了他對佛教的看法,認為佛教揭櫫透過嚴格的認知活動,去達成解脫和極樂這種完滿的道德生活,是一種至高的倫理的實踐理想。從這一角度看,佛教的態度,與蘇格拉底主張依照德爾菲神廟「認識您自己」(know thyself)的格言去追求一種貫徹始終的德性生活的理論反思態度,至為相似。但胡塞爾進一步的分析顯示,他最終仍認為佛學無法滿足一門真正的具普遍性意義的哲學之要求,因為佛學沒有發展出一門普遍的科學,不符合胡塞爾自己的哲學理念。這反映出胡塞爾始終持守著某種睿智主義的哲學理念,儘管他對由歐洲科學主導的歐洲文明之危機,有非常深刻的洞察,也有真誠的實踐關懷。

時間:24/5/2019,星期五
地點:政大資訊大樓1樓會議室

捷克現象學家柏托什卡( Jan Patočka, 1907-1977)是第一位非歐洲中心論的現象學哲學家,代表著現象學運動中的批判意識。有別於胡塞爾和海德格,柏托什卡經過對歷史意義之疑難深遂的哲學反思之後,提出「後歐洲人」之說,明確指出必須放棄一直以來的歐洲中心論立場,以找尋歐洲文明危機的出路。在亞里士多德《物理篇》的基礎上,柏托什卡發展出一套極具原創性的自然世界現象學,以大地、動力、運動,以及人之實存運動,作為一切世間中存在者呈現的現象場之基本元素。這一套自然世界現象學既非人本論中心,也視實踐比理論優先,能為文化現象學奠基。它之強調動力、運動、實踐,並揭示出本源意義的「無」在人之實存及現象世界的建構性地位,有利於與未受科學實證論支配的非歐洲文化傳統溝通,特別是進入同樣重視本源意義的「無」的中國道家哲學之大門。

時間:27/5/2019,星期一
地點:政大資訊大樓1樓會議室

2001年發生的911恐怖襲擊事件顯示,解昧的世界觀是文化交互理解的前提之一。「解昧的世界觀」作為概念──一切以超自然因素對世界的起源、演變和終極走向之說明不再有效──雖在20世紀初才正式由德國社會學家韋伯提出,但已被尼采於19世紀下半期宣佈「上帝已死」一刻作出斷症,而其哲學上的基本元素則早於18世紀下半期歐洲啟蒙運動頂峰之際由康德的批判哲學建立。然而,解昧的世界觀之在歐洲出現,並非單純是一個歐洲內部的事件。本講希望指出,一個重要的外來文化因素,在歐洲走向解昧的世界觀之過程中起了作用,這就是17至18世紀在歐洲哲學家和知識份子之間有關中國歷史和中國文化之性質的兩場大辯論,它們分別就所謂中國的「紀年之爭」和「禮儀之爭」展開。對中國歷史的認識和對中國文化之無神論性質的理解,對歐洲人當時一直持守的基督教世界觀引起極大衝擊。本講將挑選一些曾參與這些論爭的代表性歐洲哲學家--馬勒伯朗士、萊布尼茲、沃爾夫和伏爾泰──所表達的觀點與立場進行討論和分析,以展示圍繞著一些具體問題進行的交互文化理解早已於17至18世紀間在歐洲展開,而早於三百多年前,歐洲中心論已被一些歐洲前衛思想家所拼棄。

時間:22/5/2019,星期三
地點:政大資訊大樓1樓會議室

本講介紹勞思光提出的「引導性哲學」概念,以理解中國哲學及其基本旨趣。勞氏指出,引導性哲學作為反思性活動的功能在於「自我轉化」及「世界轉化」。這一說明可為晚期傅柯在《性經驗史》第二、三卷及《主體詮釋論》中顯現的倫理轉向提供理解的鑰匙。事實上,晚期傅柯正是以「自身轉化的歷練」(épreuve modificatrice de soi-même) 、「自身轉化成道德主體」(“se transformer soi-même en sujet moral”)、或 「轉化成主體」(“transformation du sujet”)這些表述方式來說明古代西方希羅時期哲學活動的特質。 傅柯稱古代西方的哲學活動為精神修煉(spiritualité),以有別於現代西方自笛卡兒以降的哲學活動。但我們發現,胡塞爾揭櫫的現象學方法──懸擱與還原──作為引導哲學主體從事自身轉化的行為,也體現了傅柯稱為精神修煉的特質。透過這一自身轉化,現象學哲學家得以發現內在於其自身的主體性,投身於對自身徹底負責的行為中,從而能擔負起成為胡塞爾在《危機》中所稱的「人類的公僕」這崇高道德任務。在這至高倫理目的之推動下,支撐著現象學態度的底層態度,也可算是一種倫理的和實踐的態度。因此, 勞思光提出的「引導性哲學」理念,不單可以作為古代西方(希羅)和當方西方哲學(傳柯、胡塞爾)的橋樑,還可以作為當代中西哲學溝通的橋樑。

時間:31/5/2019,星期五
地點:政大資訊大樓1樓會議室

This talk proposes a phenomenological reading of the ancient Chinese Daoist text Daodejing (《道德經》, also Romanized as Tao Te Ching) ascribed to Laozi (also Romanized as Lao-Tzu or Lao-Tsu). It begins by a critical discussion of the two diametrically opposite modes of reception of philosophical Daoism by contemporary Western scholars, namely that Daoist philosophy is anti-rationalism on the one hand, and on the other it is one of the hidden sources of Heidegger’s later philosophy. After a critical discussion of these two extremist readings of philosophical Daoism, we will present the elements of a phenomenological reading of Daodejing from his own appropriation of the conceptual constellation developed in the phenomenological movement understood in the broad sense of the term. This reading will go along the following three lines: 1. The dao as inchoative nature; 2. Deployment of the dao by the movement of dialectic and retrieval in the sense of hyperdialectic suggested by the last Merleau-Ponty; 3. Characteristics of the dao as vacuity and quietude as well as tenderness and weakness. This phenomenological reading of the Daodejing is meant to highlight the non-anthropocentric nature and the critical potential of Laozi’s philosophical Daoism.

Time:22/5/2019(Wednesday)
Place:1st Floor Conference Room, Information Build.,NCCU

This talk attempts at a reconstruction of Husserl’s encounter with Buddhism, with the view to understand the philosophical implications of Buddhism from the perspective of phenomenology, as well as the influence of this encounter on the later development of Husserl’s thought. Based on Husserl’s 1925 short review article on the German translation of some Buddhist Scriptures, we will show that the father of phenomenology manifested an initial enthusiasm toward Buddhism rarely seen in his other writings. Husserl praised the Buddhist attitude as a way of overcoming mundane world interests comparable to his own transcendental phenomenological attitude. Thus Husserl had projected the hope on the Buddhist Scriptures as an ethical-religious source of superlative quality for cultural renewal. In a later manuscript “Sokrates—Buddha”, Husserl expressed his further thoughts on Buddhism by comparing the Buddha to Socrates. To Husserl the Buddha advocates a supreme ethical practical ideal—liberation and bliss—by means of ruthless cognition in view of leading an accomplished moral life. This Buddhist attitude is no different from Socrates’ pursuit of a coherent life of virtue guided by the Delphic maxim of “know thyself”. Husserl seems to suggest that the Buddha is on a par with Socrates by introducing a theoretical attitude which serves a supreme ethical telos. But on further analysis, it will be shown that in Husserl’s final judgment on Buddhism, the latter does not satisfy the requirements of a genuine universal philosophy because it does not embrace Husserl’s own idea of a universal science. This betrays once again Husserl’s fundamental cognitivist conception of philosophy, though he had very acute observations on the crisis of European civilization and showed sincere practical concerns about it.

Time:24/5/2019(Friday)
Place:1st Floor Conference Room, Information Build.,NCCU

The Czech phenomenologist Jan Patočka (1907-1977) is the first non-Eurocentric phenomenological philosopher and represents the critical consciousness of the phenomenological movement. Different from Husserl and Heidegger, Patočka raised explicitly the problems of a “Post-European humanity” after conducting profound philosophical reflections on the aporia of the meaning of history, and emphasized the necessity of abandoning the hitherto Eurocentric propositions of solution to the crisis of European civilization. Inspired by Aristotle’s Physics, Patočka has formulated a profound phenomenology of the natural world insufficiently thematized in Husserl and absent in Heidegger’s Being and Time. Such a phenomenology of the natural world includes the themes of the Earth as well as those of movement and human existence as movement, themes which form the basic elements and the ground of phenomenality of all inner-worldly beings. Patočka’s reflections also bring into light the primacy of the practical over the theoretical within the natural world which paves the way for a phenomenology of the cultural world. In virtue of its emphasis on the structural characteristics of movement, of dynamis, of praxis, and of the disclosure of the abyssal, unfathomable nature of human existence and of the original nothingness as the (non-)foundation of the phenomenal world, Patočka’s phenomenology of the natural world constitutes an opening toward the reception of Others and other cultures which are not dominated by scientific positivism, in particular that of Chinese Daoist philosophy.

Time:27/5/2019(Monday)
Place:1st Floor Conference Room, Information Build.,NCCU

The event of the September-11 terrorist attack of 2001 shows that a disenchanted world-view is one of the conditions of possibility of intercultural understanding. The disenchantment of the world as a concept—the tentative to explain the origin, the changes and the ultimate goal of development of the world by supra-natural factors is declared invalid—was formulated by Max Weber at the beginning of the Twentieth Century, diagnosed by Nietzsche prior to the invention of this term in the second part of the Nineteenth Century, and philosophically worked out in its essential ingredients by Kant’s critical philosophy at the high time of European Enlightenment in the late Eighteenth Century. Yet the growth of the disenchanted world-view in Europe, we hope to show, is not a purely European affair. An important cultural factor which arrived from outside of Europe had come into play, namely the reception of Chinese culture and the debates during the “Chinese chronology controversy” and the “Chinese rites controversy” in the Seventeenth and the Eighteen Centuries among European philosophers and intellectuals around the history and nature of this cultural Other of Europe. The knowledge of Chinese history and the understanding of the atheist nature of Chinese culture had exercised a great shock on the Christian world-view held hithertho by Europeans. Views and positions of selected representative figures who have taken part in the debate (Malebranche, Leibniz, Wolff and Voltaire) will be discussed to show how intercultural understanding around a concrete issue has been taking place in Europe and how Eurocentrism has been repudiated by avant-guard thinkers in Europe some three centuries ago.

Time:22/5/2019(Wednesday)
Place:1st Floor Conference Room, Information Build.,NCCU

This talk introduces the idea of “orientative philosophy” proposed by Lao Sze-Kwang (1927-2012) to understand the basic characteristics and interest of Chinese philosophy. Lao’s characterization of orientative philosophy as reflective thinking which aims at bringing about “self-transformation” and “transformation of the world” has the advantage of providing a key to understand the famous ethical turn of Foucault shown in the later volumes of his History of Sexuality and in The Hermeneutics of the Subject. In fact, the last Foucault uses precisely the terms “transformative test of the self”, “self-transformation into moral subject”, or “transformation of the subject”, close to Lao’s “self-transformation”, to bring to a new light the essence of philosophical activity in Greek and Roman Antiquity. Foucault proposes to characterize the form of philosophical activity in Western Antiquity as “spirituality” after Pierre Hadot in distinction to philosophy in its modern form since Descartes.
Yet we find that Husserl’s practice of the phenomenological method of epoché and reduction, as an act leading to the self-transformation of the philosophizing subject, shares features of spirituality as understood by Foucault. It is on the basis of the self-transformation of the human subject, through which she discovers and comes to terms with her own subjectivity, that the phenomenological philosopher is engaged in an act of radical responsibility toward herself, enabling her to carry out the mission of being “functionaries of humankind” as prescribed by Husserl in The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. Motivated by this supreme ethical telos, the basic attitude underlying the phenomenological attitude is arguably also ethical and practical in nature. Thus Lao Sze-Kwang’s idea of orientative philosophy can serve as a bridge between ancient and contemporary Western philosophies on the one hand, and between contemporary Eastern and Western philosophers on the other.

Time:31/5/2019(Friday)
Place:1st Floor Conference Room, Information Build.,NCCU

講師資訊

劉國英 教授

法國巴黎大學索爾邦學院哲學博士
現任香港中文大學哲學系教授
並為《現象學與人文科學》創刊主編

香港出生,香港中文大學哲學系畢業(1979),法國巴黎大學索爾邦學院哲學博士(1993)。專研現象學、當代法國哲學及跨文化哲學。現任香港中文大學哲學系教授、哲學文學碩士課程主任、鄭承隆基金亞洲現象學中心主任、人文學科研究所副所長、《現象學與人文科學》創刊主編。曾出任法國圖魯茲大學歐盟歐洲哲學碩士課程、法國勃艮第大學、台灣國立政治大學、台灣國立中山大學訪問教授。著有Phenomenology and Intercultural Understanding: Toward a New Cultural Flesh (獲美國Center for Advanced Research in Phenomenology 頒發2019年度最佳現象學著作獎)、《法國現象學的蹤跡──從沙特到德里達》、《永久和平的倡議者:康德作品選讀》、《當代歐陸哲學家臉譜――從胡塞爾到李歐塔》(即將出版)、合編有Border-Crossing: Phenomenology, Interculturality and Interdisciplinarity、Phenomenology and Human Experience、 Identity and Alterity. Phenomenology and Cultural Traditions、Husserl’s Logical Investigations in the New Century: Western and Chinese Perspectives等書。”

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